A nice confluence of processes in this research: the longevity difference between genders, the role of oxidative damage in aging, how mitochondria cause that oxidative damage, and how calorie restriction changes it all. "Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition has been shown to increase maximal life span and delay the rate of aging in a wide range of species. It has been proposed that reduction in energy expenditure and oxidative damage may explain the life-extending effect of CR. Gender also has been shown to influence longevity and energy expenditure in many mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to determine the gender-related differences in rat liver mitochondrial machinery, bioenergetics and oxidative balance in response to short-term CR. ... Female rats showed a higher oxidative capacity and GPx activity than males. This gender dimorphism was not modified by CR. Restricted rats showed slightly increased oxygen consumption, complex III activity and GPx antioxidant activity together with lower levels of oxidative damage. In conclusion, the gender dimorphism in liver mitochondrial oxidative capacity was unaffected by CR, with females showing higher mitochondrial functionality and ROS protection than males."