Knowledge drives the current speed of advance in medical science - knowledge of the way in which our bodies actually work. Without specific knowledge of underlying mechanisms, all investigations are trial and error, poking around in the dark.
The first step in the modern investigation of the body was to understand and categorize our genes. Now, the focus is on using these results to understand and categorize the biochemisty and biomechanics of cells - which will lead to a full comprehension of disease, cancer and aging.
With this in mind, here an article on the topic. Firstly, "Cracking the Cellular Code":
In the past few years, biologists have churned out the entire genetic sequence of dozens of organisms, including humans, dogs, mosquitoes, rats, and bacteria. But these strings of genes amount to the most basic molecular parts list, not much more helpful to deciphering how the genes combine to run a living cell than an array of microchips and wires would be for assembling a computer.
"One of the exciting outcomes of this kind of work," Young says, "is that we have the potential to understand why mutations in key human regulators cause disease."