Researchers are making great strides in the development of effective cancer therapies based on vaccines. Human trials have been undertaken in a number of countries with promising results to date. "The first U.S. kidney cancer vaccine trial is now underway at Columbia University Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia. While the potential for vaccines to treat solid tumors has been recognized for more than a decade, this trial is pioneering the use of tumor immunotherapy - boosting the body’s natural immune system - as a way to fight cancer. ... Tumor vaccines contain a specific protein of the tumor cell that stimulates an immune response."