In case you haven't seen biomedical gerontologist Aubrey de Grey's views on nanomedicine, here he is in Always On: "I think the first therapies, the 30-year-conferring ones, will probably not involve nanotech at all ... But as I've explained, the problems to be solved will get progressively harder as time goes by, and we can't afford to slow down - if any of those seven types of damage reaches pathogenic levels, it's game over. I think it's quite likely that pure biotechnology will come up against some brick walls by the time we get out to ages like 200 or 250. At that time, we'll need machinery that's fundamentally different from enzymes and vaccines and such like, let alone pharmaceuticals: machinery that we can control as precisely as we control computers. Nanomedicine will need to be at the heart of all medicine by then, but especially at the heart of life extension medicine."