I've mentioned personalized medicine a number of times in the past: it's a promising part of the future of medicine for many reasons. Present day treatment is all too often a hit-and-miss affair, as we understand all too little about the large variance in effectiveness of therapies between individuals. The Royal Society has issued a lengthy report on timelines for the development of the underlying medical technologies. "The Society concludes that personalised medicines also known as pharmacogenetics have a promising future. However, it will be another 15 to 20 years before their use is widespread because of the many gaps in our understanding of how genetics relates to the causes of disease."