From EurekAlert, a good demonstration of the sort of control over cellular processes that is at the heart of progress in cell therapies: "The key gene that the scientists studied is called brahma-related gene-1 (Brg-1) that is found in both mice and humans. ... This research shows us that in mice, Brg-1 is a critical signal that prevents stem cells from turning into neurons at the wrong time. However, since we can manipulate Brg1 expression in stem cells in culture, we now have a powerful way to generate neurons that could be used to replace cells lost in a variety of diseases and conditions that affect the brain and spinal cord. That is our next step. Since the process only involves a single gene, it is highly amenable for the development of drugs targeted at promoting stem cell differentiation in the adult nervous system."