Via EurekAlert!, a look at humanin and longevity associated with the insulin signaling system: "Dr. Nir Barzilai reports that a small infusion of [Humanin] HN is the most potent regulator of insulin metabolism that his research team has ever seen, significantly improving overall insulin sensitivity and sharply decreasing the glucose levels of diabetic rats. ...Dr. Barzilai is internationally known as a leading discoverer of longevity genes ... Last year, he reported that some of the oldest in this group have mutations in the gene for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor, genetic alterations that have been shown to prolong life span in worms and some mammals. In this [presentation], he reports that, while the production of HN generally decreases as people age, it decreases less in the centenarians and is the highest in their offspring. Studies are now underway [to] determine if the centenarians have a mutation in the HN gene in the mitochondria." Insulin metabolism is one of the major areas of focus for researchers aiming to understand how rates of aging are determined by the operation of our metabolic processes.