An academic video from the University of Wisconsin: "Ricki Colman, PhD, reviews the long-term health benefits of caloric restriction (CR) using data from a 20 year study in non-human primates at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center. She outlines positive health changes associated with longevity including lower diabetes incidence, less age-associated loss of muscle mass, altered energy expenditures, and lower rates of obesity." The human studies show much the same, aside from the longevity implications that have yet to be measured well. That said, there is at least some evidence from the analysis of past studies that calorie restriction contributes to human longevity - but it's nowhere near as solid as the results demonstrated in mice and other lesser species. The evidence for significant health benefits in humans through calorie restriction is, however, very solid. No presently available medical technology even comes close to generating the level of health benefits obtained through eating fewer calories while still obtaining optimal nutrition - which is a state of affairs we'd all like to change.