One of the obstacles to rejuvenation of specific systems in the body through stem cell transplantation is that cells take their cues from the environment that surrounds them. Young cells are effectively damaged or suppressed by an old cellular environment. But there are signs that this effect could be diminished, and this research is one step in that direction: "Nanoscaffolds can play a central role in organ regeneration as they act as templates and guides for cell proliferation, differentiation and tissue growth. It is also important to protect these fragile cells from the harsh environment in which they are transplanted ... The research team created the scaffold to provide a substrate for cell adhesion and migration and to influence the survival of transplanted cells or the invasion of cells from surrounding tissue. ... Implanted stem cells are adversely susceptible to their new environment and quickly get old, but this study suggests a solution to conquer this problem. The self-assembling nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS) provides a niche for the encapsulated stem cells by slowing down their growth, differentiation and proliferation, as well as potentially minimizing the immune response, thus enhancing the survival rate of the implanted stem cells. This allows the implanted stem cells to [extend] their neurites to reach distant targets, thereby re-establishing the neural circuits. This combination of stem cells and SAPNS technologies gives a new hope for building up younger neural circuit in the central neural system."