Tengion is one of the research groups attempting to tissue engineer replacement sections of intestine: "Tengion has demonstrated that smooth muscle cells seeded on its biological scaffolding and then implanted in rodents exhibit functional regeneration of both the inner lining of epithelial cells and the surrounding layers of small intestine smooth muscle cells in as little as eight weeks post-implantation. ... The regeneration of small intestine from smooth muscle cells using our technology platform represents an important step forward in the development of functional, regenerated organs. Our goal is to translate preclinical data and proof of concept findings into clinical programs that could represent a broad range of medical treatment possibilities for patients in need of new bladders, kidneys and other organs. ... In this preclinical study, patch and tubular constructs were implanted in rodent small intestines and histologically evaluated for evidence of regeneration of the neo-mucosa and muscle layers. In as little as eight weeks post-implantation, laminarly organized neo-mucosa and muscle layer bundles were demonstrated, supporting the approach of using autologous smooth muscle cells and biomaterial combination products to spur regeneration of the small intestine. Patients with short bowel syndrome have typically undergone extensive small intestine resectioning and may become dependent on parenteral nutrition, a costly treatment associated with multiple complications, and could potentially benefit from a regenerative medicine approach."