Researchers are trying to create new lymph nodes in the body, but tailored to specific needs: "Designer lymph nodes are built with specialized gene-modified cells that are injected into patients and produce a pre-planned immunologic response for cancer patients locally and then throughout their bodies. The researchers are examining a cancer vaccine 'boosting' effect of the manufactured lymph nodes in patients with advanced melanoma. ... Patients with cancer have a dysfunctional immune system either because of the tumor's presence in the body or as a side effect of drugs or radiation used to treat the tumor. The designer lymph nodes, aimed at rebuilding their immune systems, may overcome this dysfunction. ... the researchers are using antigen-presenting cells made from the patient's blood, which are then genetically manipulated to express certain genes before injection into patients. They can inject gene-modified cells at multiple, independent sites throughout the body to create independent lymph nodes that work together. In the trial, the researchers have found early formation of lymph nodes at the vaccine injection sites and are subsequently testing the nature and anti-tumor function of them. [The team] anticipate partnering with [other institutions] to create designer lymph nodes for diseases other than cancer and expand their designer gene immunity boosting research into fighting infectious diseases and even improving the function of immune systems in the elderly."