There are many genes associated with longevity, but one of the present challenges in this research is that few such correlations seem to exist in multiple populations - implying that there is a very large set of individually small contributions from our genes, and that different lineages and lifestyles have significantly different maps of genes to longevity:
Men and women have a different life expectancy. Not unexpectedly, several genes involved in lifespan determination have been found to influence the probability of achieving longevity differently in men and women. This investigation examines the association between longevity and polymorphisms of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, Asn680Ser polymorphism) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG, Pro12Ala polymorphism), two genes that previous investigations suggested may exert a gender-specific influence on human longevity.
A sample of 277 individuals (mean age: 82.9±5.7years) was recruited in 2000. Based on mortality data collected in 2009, the sample was divided into two groups of subjects surviving over 90 years (long-lived) or not (controls). The frequency of FSHR 680 Ser/Ser genotype was significantly higher in the sample of long-lived women compared to controls, indicating that FSHR 680 Ser/Ser genotype may favor survival to more than 90 years of age only in women. In contrast, the frequency of PPARG Pro/Ala genotype was significantly higher in the sample of male subjects who died before 90 years than in the long-lived, suggesting that carrying PPARG Pro/Ala genotype may prevent the attainment of advanced age only in men.
We then searched the literature for studies reporting a differential role for the genetic component in male and female longevity; to do this, we selected longevity genes with a gender-specific effect. A review of the studies showed that genetic factors tend to have a greater relevance in determining longevity in men than in women.