How Cells Take Out the Trash

Autophagy consists of a collection of cellular housecleaning processes responsible for recycling damaged cellular components. It is known to relate to longevity, as demonstrated in numerous animals studies in which aging is slowed via genetic or metabolic manipulation, and in which autophagy is seen to take place more energetically. This all seems logical, as aging is nothing more than an accumulation of unrepaired damage and the reactions to that damage, while autophagy seeks to minimize present damage before it causes more harm.

Since we've already touched on of autophagy and its relationship to longevity today, as well as the prospects for developing therapies based on increased levels of autophagy, I thought I'd point out this popular science article on the topic:

To keep themselves neat, tidy and above all healthy, cells rely on a variety of recycling and trash removal systems. If it weren't for these systems, cells could look like microscopic junkyards - and worse, they might not function properly.

One of the cell's trash processors is called the proteasome. It breaks down proteins, the building blocks and mini-machines that make up many cell parts. The barrel-shaped proteasome disassembles damaged or unwanted proteins, breaking them into bits that the cell can re-use to make new proteins. In this way, the proteasome is just as much a recycling plant as it is a garbage disposal.

Proteins aren't the only type of cellular waste. Cells also have to recycle compartments called organelles when they become old and worn out. For this task, they rely on an organelle called the lysosome, which works like a cellular stomach. Containing acid and several types of digestive enzymes, lysosomes digest unwanted organelles in a process termed autophagy.

While cells mainly use proteasomes and lysosomes, they have a couple of other options for trash disposal. Sometimes they simply hang onto their trash, performing the cellular equivalent of sweeping it under the rug. Scientists propose that the cell may pile all the unwanted proteins together in a glob called an aggregate to keep them from gumming up normal cellular machinery. If the garbage can't be digested by lysosomes, the cell can sometimes spit it out in a process called exocytosis. Once outside the cell, the trash may encounter enzymes that can take it apart, or it may simply form a garbage heap called a plaque. Unfortunately, these plaques outside the cell may be harmful, too.

Further study of the many ways cells take out the trash could lead to new approaches for keeping them healthy and preventing or treating disease.



I have read through and I'm glad to see persons , people constantly researching on human sustenance especially towards longevity .
For certain repairs to occur and be correctly done , the human body must be put into a deep sleep state "Human Hibernation" . Energy redistributed from reducing motor function will be channeled to Cellular growth and regeneration . Cells will have more available energy and hence carry out repairs effectively.
Since your research covers to an extent on cell digestion and excretion , we must address how the human body will sustain this functioning if it will be put into a deep sleep for quite a long period . Osmo-diffusion will aide this ; an enclosure (pod) containing Amniotic fluid of digested food must first be prepared(content must measure for duration of sleep) and then the body immersed so as to be able to absorb nutrients. due to pressure the body exerts cells highly concentrated are able to take in food through osmosis and process garbage through the process you had stated .
If this is properly understood , this process will not be limited to practice at laboratory alone but at homes and families would be able to cut excessive cost on medicals and focus on more pressing matters like ecological protection and advancement without exploiting and causing alterations which could become catastrophic .
Do write back if you need further explanation or would be making corrections or adjustments to whatever I have stated above.
Thank you and keep the good work going .
~Sir. Martin s.o.s.

Posted by: kodersos at July 31st, 2023 12:35 PM
Comment Submission

Post a comment; thoughtful, considered opinions are valued. New comments can be edited for a few minutes following submission. Comments incorporating ad hominem attacks, advertising, and other forms of inappropriate behavior are likely to be deleted.

Note that there is a comment feed for those who like to keep up with conversations.