The research materials here fit nicely with a recent post in which the degree to which frailty is self-inflicted was discussed. In this age of comfort and technology, people eat too much and exercise too little. The latter point is demonstrated in the numerous studies that show benefits in older individuals arising from structured exercise programs, a turning back of some of the advance of age-related disability. Thus the progression of frailty is not inexorable for those who choose to exercise more frequently in later years, a small example of the point that our choices do make a difference.
As we age, we may be less able to perform daily activities because we may feel frail, or weaker than we have in the past. Frailer older adults may walk more slowly and have less energy. Frailty also raises a person's risks for falling, breaking a bone, becoming hospitalized, developing delirium, and dying. No one knows exactly how many older adults are frail - estimates range from 4 percent to 59 percent of the older adult population. Researchers say that frailty seems to increase with age, and is more common among women than men and in people with lower education and income. Being in poorer health and having several chronic illnesses also have links to being frail.
Frailty also tends to worsen over time, but in at least two studies, a small number (9 percent to 14 percent) of frail older adults became stronger and less frail as they aged. The researchers examined information gathered from more than 5,000 men aged 65 or older (average age was about 73) who had volunteered for a study about bone fractures caused by osteoporosis. At the start of the study, between 2000 and 2002, the men all lived independently and could walk; none had had hip replacements. Most of the men participated in a second examination about four years after the study began.
At the start of the study, the researchers determined the participants' frailty status by measuring levels of weakness, exhaustion, lean muscle mass, walking speed, and physical activity. The men were categorized as frail, pre-frail (had one or more signs of frailty, such as low grip strength, low energy, slow walking speed, low activity level or unintentional weight loss), or robust (showing no signs of frailty). At the start of the study, nearly 8 percent of the men were frail and 46 percent were pre-frail. The most common problems for the frail men were weakness, slowness, and low activity.
Over four and a half years, the number of frail men increased while the proportion of robust men decreased. Among the men who were frail at both visits: 56 percent had no change in frailty status, 35 percent had become frailer or had died, 15 percent of pre-frail or frail men improved. Having greater leg power, being married, and reporting good or excellent health were linked to improvements in frailty status.