The accumulation of senescent cells in tissues throughout the body is a cause of aging, but it is also a phenomenon that occurs in cell cultures. Senescent cells do not replicate and secrete a potent inflammatory mix of signal molecules that degrades tissue function. Senescence in cells expanded in culture is a challenge to the efficacy of cell therapies, and may go some way towards explaining the unreliability in benefits obtained from clinic to clinic and treatment to treatment. First generation mesenchymal stem cell therapies are now widely employed, and researchers are starting to give greater attention to ways to minimize senescence in the cells delivered to patients.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation. There is increasing evidence of the therapeutic value of MSCs in various clinical situations, however, these cells gradually lose their regenerative potential with age, with a concomitant increase in cellular dysfunction. Stem cell aging and replicative exhaustion are considered as hallmarks of aging and functional attrition in organisms. MSCs do not proliferate infinitely but undergo only a limited number of population doublings before becoming senescent. This greatly hinders their clinical application, given that cultures must be expanded to obtain a sufficient number of cells for cell-based therapy.
Strategies allowing the generation of large numbers of MSCs that have retained their stemness are needed for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MSCs (iMSCs) can be passaged more than 40 times without exhibiting features of senescence. iMSCs retain a donor-specific DNA methylation profile while tissue-specific, senescence-associated, and age-related patterns are erased during reprogramming. Recent studies have demonstrated that iMSCs have superior regenerative capacity compared to tissue-derived MSCs in preclinical degenerative disease models. However, the generation of iMSCs from iPSCs requires a significant degree of molecular manipulation, and there are safety concerns regarding the self-renewal and pluripotency of iPSC-derived cells after in vivo transplantation.
Aging is not a passive or random process but can be modulated through several key signaling molecules/pathways. Identification of age-related coordinating centers can provide novel targets for therapeutic interventions. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are a class of highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacylases. The role of SIRTs in aging is related to their regulation of energy metabolism, cell death, and circadian rhythm and maintenance of cellular and mitochondrial protein homeostasis. Overexpression of SIRTs has been investigated as a potential strategy for preventing MSC aging. For instance, SIRT3 expression in MSCs decreased with prolonged culture and its overexpression in later-passage cells restored differentiation capacity and reduced aging-related senescence.
Genetic engineering has been used to slow MSC aging. Besides SIRTs, several molecules have been identified as potential targets for interventions to prevent senescence. Ectopic expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase in MSCs extended their replicative lifespan, which preserved a normal karyotype, promoted telomere elongation, and abolished senescence without loss of differentiation potential. Introduction of Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) in aged MSCs conferred resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death and rescued the senescence phenotype. Knocking down macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in young MSCs induced senescence; conversely, its overexpression in aged MSCs rejuvenated the cells by activating autophagy. However, the risk of malignant transformation remains a major barrier for the use of genetics-based approaches in clinical practice.