Eating a Plant Based Diet Correlates with Better Health and Lower Mortality

In a few recent scientific publications, the authors examined the differences in incidence of age-related disease and mortality in populations with differing levels of plant versus animal dietary protein intake. The closer to a vegan diet one approaches, the lower the risk of disease and mortality. There is already plenty of evidence for this outcome in the literature, although, as in all such things, the outstanding questions revolve around which of the possible mechanisms are the important ones.

For example, it should be expected that a lesser intake of animal protein will lower inflammation throughout the body. But does this effect really matter in comparison to the physiological response to the lower intake of calories one sees in people who adopt plant-based diets? Given the strength of the effects of calorie intake on long-term health, it is a very reasonable to make the argument that the bulk of the benefits of a vegan diet arise because of a lower calorie intake. Fewer calories means less visceral fat, greater operation of stress response mechanisms such as autophagy, and so forth. This adds up over the years.

Plant-Based Diets Promote Healthful Aging

Researchers reviewed clinical trials and epidemiological studies related to aging and found that while aging increases the risk for noncommunicable chronic diseases, healthful diets can help. The authors cite studies showing that plant-based diets rich in fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes: reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by about 50%; reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40%; reduce the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%; reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by more than 50%.

Association Between Plant and Animal Protein Intake and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality

In this analysis of a large prospective cohort of 416,104 men and women in the US with 16 years of observation, we found higher plant protein intake was associated with reduced risk of overall mortality, with men and women experiencing (respectively) 12% and 14% lower mortality per 10 g/1000 kcal intake increment (5% lower mortality per standard deviation increment). The inverse association was apparent for cardiovascular disease and stroke mortality in both sexes, was independent of several risk factors, and was evident in most other cohort subgroups.

Replacement of 3% energy from various animal protein sources with plant protein was associated with 10% decreased overall mortality in both sexes. Of note, substitution analyses suggested that replacement of egg protein and red meat protein with plant protein resulted in the most prominent protective associations for overall mortality, representing 24% and 21% lower risk for men and women, respectively, for egg protein replacement, and 13% and 15% lower risk for men and women for red meat protein replacement. The effect sizes of these risk estimates were small.

Comments

I think such studies are not conclusive if they not include other lifestyle choices such as exercise and fasting.

Over millions of years, we evolved as carnivores. Of course, our pre-historic ancestors had to move a lot to hunt down their food sources and there were often periods of famine.

Another thing to consider is the poor quality of meet from idustrial farming.

Posted by: Stephan at July 21st, 2020 7:40 PM

The first reference is from an editorial by the "Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine", hardly known as an objective source. Their notion (as I recall) that the "best" diet (for health and longevity) must be one based almost solely on plants is pretty narrow-minded. For example, I'm unaware of any reliable evidence that consuming just one egg per day (as I do) has a significant negative effect on either human healthspan or lifespan, while being a source of several nutrients that are not readily available in plant foods.

Posted by: dtkamp at July 21st, 2020 8:27 PM

There's also the problem of losing iron in these diets and heme based iron is proving to be somewhat important, though there is also the problem of heavy metals causing other issues so I suppose there's a balance. Donating blood often may help I hear, it's the only form of bloodletting there is these days.

Posted by: Nathan at July 22nd, 2020 10:11 AM

Most of my animal protein is from wild-caught salmon...sardines...some non-fat yogurt...some cheese...a few eggs. The cheese and yogurt is the typical stuff...the salmon while wild has the issue of Japan's radiation....at least I avoid some of the CAFO mess. The rest are veggies/whole grains of various kinds...mostly non-organic. Take a lot of supplements.

Probably more important than what you eat...is eating too much.

I've settled for veering in the right direction...not perfection....not that I like "settling"...but in the real world for most people...that's the best you'll get?

Some people don't know how or why to veer....but comparing one's self to the deaf...blind...and stupid is not only socially poor form...but is not really helpful...you need to build from where you are at...not from where you've been?

Posted by: fred at July 29th, 2020 6:12 AM

Post a comment; thoughtful, considered opinions are valued. New comments can be edited for a few minutes following submission. Comments incorporating ad hominem attacks, advertising, and other forms of inappropriate behavior are likely to be deleted.

Note that there is a comment feed for those who like to keep up with conversations.