Reviewing the Potential of Extracellular Vesicles to Treat Degenerative Bone Conditions

First generation stem cell therapies, in which cells near entirely die following transplantation, cause benefits via changes in native cell behavior resulting from the signaling produced by the transplanted cells. Much of cell signaling is carried in extracellular vesicles, membrane-bound packages of various molecules. The types, contents, and circumstances of creation of extracellular vesicles are not fully understood, a work in progress. Harvesting these vesicles from specific cell types known to be beneficial when transplanted is a way to circumvent this lack of knowledge in the near term.

Degenerative bone disorders, encompassing conditions such as intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD), osteoarthritis (OA), and osteoporosis (OP), exert a profound impact on the well-being of individuals. In recent years, the landscape of regenerative medicine has been transformed by the emergence of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) therapies, presenting a promising approach for improving degenerative bone disorders.

These diminutive yet potent membrane-enclosed vesicles, released by stem cells, have emerged as the effective factors responsible for the regenerative outcomes witnessed in stem cell therapies. With their bioactive cargo, these EVs derived from stem cells release a complex of regenerative signals, directing a coordinated interaction within the complicated microenvironment of deteriorating bone. This captivating phenomenon has captured the attention of both researchers and clinicians, as stem cell-derived EVs show their remarkable potential in reshaping the landscape of regenerative medicine.

By harnessing the inherent regenerative attributes of stem cells and utilizing the distinctive cargo encapsulated within their secreted EVs, researchers, and clinicians aspire to surmount the constraints frequently linked to conventional therapeutic modalities. In contrast to conventional methods primarily centered on symptom management, this pioneering strategy aims to exploit the innate healing potential of the human body. In this extensive review, we perform an intriguing exploration to investigate the captivating domain of therapies involving EVs derived from stem cells, with a particular emphasis on their prospective applications in revitalizing degenerated bone tissues.