Mitochondria are the cell's roving herd of bacteria-like power plants, and the damage they suffer in the course of their operation is strongly implicated as a contributing cause of aging. Here researchers show that calorie restriction appears to boost the rate at which new mitochondria are spawned: "mice with increased respiratory rates and reduced energetic conversion efficiency due to spontaneously uncoupled mitochondria lived longer than their counterparts. Indeed, different uncoupling strategies were able to extend lifespan in models ranging from yeast to mammals. ... uncoupling could be an approach to promote lifespan extension due to its ability to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Indeed, mild mitochondrial uncoupling is a highly effective intervention to prevent the formation of ROS ... CR also increases the number of functional respiratory units (mitochondrial biogenesis) [and researchers] demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis was essential for many beneficial effects of dietary limitation in mice. ... We recently demonstrated that murine lifespan can be extended by low doses of the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in a manner accompanied by weight loss, lower serological levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides as well as a strong decrease in biomarkers of oxidative damage and tissue ROS release. Similar effects have been repeatedly reported using CR diets ... Based on the similarities between these two interventions, we hypothesized that DNP treatment could also lead to enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. In this manuscript, we measured the effects of DNP treatment and CR on mitochondrial biogenesis and associated pathways. We observed that both DNP and CR increase mitochondrial biogenesis, [confirming] that signaling events in both treatments converge."